The next 12 months are not likely to be kind to African democracy.
Vote tallying was a fiasco. The landslide by long-ruling MPLA was potentially a total fabrication.
Why does Kenya have a plethora of election laws that it expertly drafts, and then enthusiastically ignores? And why do some other countries have hardly anything on paper, but their practice is far above and beyond?
In all other countries, presidents have either died in office, been deposed in a coup or revolution, lost at the ballot, or changed the constitution to extend their term in office.
It seems political hardening is increasingly a global phenomenon. Though the local factors that drive a nativist, authoritarian, or anti-liberal mood might be unique to each country, the broader trends are apparent.